Arduino Mega 2560 R3 Overview:
The Arduino Mega 2560 R3 Board ATmega2560 ATMEGA16U2 is a microcontroller board base on the ATmega2560. It has 54 digital input/output pins (of which 15 can be used as PWM outputs), 16 analog inputs, 4 UARTs (hardware serial ports), a 16 MHz crystal oscillator, a USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP header, and a reset button. It contains everything needed to support the microcontroller; simply connect it to a computer with a USB cable or power it with a AC-to-DC adapter or battery to get start. The Mega 2560 board is compatible with most shields design for the Uno and the former boards Duemilanove or Decimal.
The Mega 2560 is an update to the Arduino Mega, which it replace
The Mega 2560 has a resettable polyfused that protects your computer’s USB ports from shorts and overcurrent. Although most computers provide their own internal protection, the fuse provides an extra layer of protection. If more than 500 mA is apply to the USB port, the fuse will automatically break the connection until the short or overload is remove.
Arduino Mega 2560 Rev3 Power
The Mega 2560 can be power via the USB connection or with an external power supply. The power source is selected automatically.
The board can operate on an external supply of 6 to 20 volts. If supplied with less than 7V, however, the 5V pin may supply less than five volts and the board may become unstable. If using more than 12V, the voltage regulator may overheat and damage the board. The recommended range is 7 to 12 volts.
- Vin. The input voltage to the board when it’s using an external power source (as oppose to 5 volts from the USB connection or other regulated power source). You can supply voltage through this pin, or, if supplying voltage via the power jack, access it through this pin.
- 5V. This pin outputs a regulate 5V from the regulator on the board. The board can be supply with power either from the DC power jack (7 – 12V), the USB connector (5V), or the VIN pin of the board (7-12V). Supplying voltage via the 5V or 3.3V pins bypasses the regulator, and can damage your board. We don’t advise it.
- 3V3. A 3.3 volt supply generated by the on-board regulator. Maximum current draw is 50 mA.
- GND. Ground pins.
- IOREF. This pin on the board provides the voltage reference with which the microcontroller operates. A properly configured shield can read the IOREF pin voltage and select the appropriate power source or enable voltage translators on the outputs for working with the 5V or 3.3V.
PIN MAPPING ATmega2560
Each of the 54 digital pins on the Mega can be used as an input or output, using pin Mode(),digital Write(), and digital Read() functions. They operate at 5 volts. Each pin can provide or receive 20 mA as recommended operating condition and has an internal pull-up resistor (disconnected by default) of 20-50 k ohm. A maximum of 40mA is the value that must not be exceeded to avoid permanent damage to the microcontroller.
See also the mapping Arduino Mega 2560 PIN diagram.
The Mega 2560 has 16 analog inputs, each of which provide 10 bits of resolution (i.e. 1024 different values). By default they measure from ground to 5 volts, though is it possible to change the upper end of their range using the AREF pin and analog Reference() function.
There are a couple of other pins on the board:
Arduino Mega 2560 R3 Communication
The Mega 2560 board has a number of facilities for communicating with a computer, another board, or other microcontrollers. The ATmega2560 provides four hardware UARTs for TTL (5V) serial communication. An ATmega16U2 (AT mega 8U2 on the revision 1 and revision 2 boards) on the board channels one of these over USB and provides a virtual com port to software on the computer (Windows machines will need a .info file, but OSX and Linux machines will recognize the board as a COM port automatically. The Arduino Software (IDE) includes a serial monitor which allows simple textual data to be sent to and from the board. The RX and TX LEDs on the board will flash when data is being transmitted via the ATmega8U2/ATmega16U2 chip and USB connection to the computer (but not for serial communication on pins 0 and 1).
A Software Serial library allows for serial communication on any of the Mega 2560’s digital pins.
Automatic (Software) Reset
Rather then requiring a physical press of the reset button before an upload, the Mega 2560 is design in a way that allows it to be reset by software running on a connected computer.
This setup has other implications. When the Mega 2560 board is connected to either a computer running Mac OS X or Linux, it resets each time a connection is made to it from software (via USB). For the following half-second or so, the bootloader is running on the ATMega2560. While it is program to ignore malformed data (i.e. anything besides an upload of new code), it will intercept the first few bytes of data sent to the board after a connection is opened. If a sketch running on the board receives one-time configuration or other data when it first starts, make sure that the software with which it communicates waits a second after opening the connection and before sending this data.
Arduino Mega 2560 Rev3 Tech specs
|Input Voltage (recommended)||7-12V|
|Input Voltage (limit)||6-20V|
|Digital I/O Pins||54 (of which 15 provide PWM output)|
|Analog Input Pins||16|
|DC Current per I/O Pin||20 mA|
|DC Current for 3.3V Pin||50 mA|
|Flash Memory||256 KB of which 8 KB used by bootloader|
|Clock Speed||16 MHz|
The Mega 2560 does not use the FTDI USB-to-serial driver chip use in past designs. Instead, it features the ATmega16U2 (ATmega8U2 in the revision 1 and revision 2 Arduino boards) programmed as a USB-to-serial converter.en.wikipedia.org
Revision 2 of the Mega 2560 board has a resistor pulling the 8U2 HWB line to ground, making it easier to put into DFU mode.
Revision 3 of the Arduino board and the current Genuine Mega 2560 have the following improved features: